Katie Ledecky ready to set new goals for Tokyo after Rio

Katie Ledecky joins TODAY to talk about her tremendously successful meet in Rio and how she plans on building off her results heading into Tokyo.

Triathlon at the Tokyo Games will feature individual races for men and women, as well as a new mixed relay event.

Since debuting at the 2000 Sydney Games, triathlon has produced medalists from a variety of nations. Great Britain, Switzerland and Australia lead the overall standings with five.

Gwen Jorgensen won the women’s event at the 2016 Rio Games to give Team USA its first Olympic gold in the sport.

Individual

The Olympic distances for individual races are:

  • Swim: 1500m (open water)
  • Bike: 40km
  • Run: 10km

Overview

Both the men’s and women’s events are a single race consisting of a 1.5km (0.93 miles) swim, 40km (24.85 miles) bike ride, and 10km (6.21 miles) run completed from start to finish, in that order, with no breaks. There are no heats. The first athlete to cross the finish line wins the gold medal.

The starting position and placement in the transition area will be determined by a draw. This draw typically occurs about 48 hours before the competition.

Duration

At the 2016 Rio Games, the top finishers in the men’s event took 1 hour, 45 minutes, while the final finisher crossed the line in 1 hour, 58 minutes. The women’s event was won in 1 hour, 56 minutes, while the final finished crossed in 2 hours, 11 minutes.

It is possible that times in Tokyo will be slower due to the heat. For example, the men’s test event in August 2019 was won in 1 hour, 49 minutes. (The women’s Olympic test event was contested using a shorter running distance due to the weather conditions.)

Mixed Team Relay

In the mixed relay, teams comprise two men and two women, each of whom completes a short-course (super-sprint) triathlon one at a time, always in the order of female-male-female-male. The winner is the team whose fourth competitor crosses the finish line first. Distances for this event are:

  • Swim: 300m (open water)
  • Bike: 8km
  • Run: 2km

Overview

The mixed relay will make its debut in Tokyo. Teams consist of four athletes, ordered female-male-female-male, who each complete a super-sprint triathlon consisting of a 300m (0.18 miles) swim, 7.4km (4.59 miles) bike and 1.8km run (1.11 miles), in that order, before tagging their teammate. The team whose fourth competitor crosses the finish line first wins the gold medal.

The starting position and placement in the transition area will be determined by a draw. This draw typically occurs about 48 hours before the competition.

Duration

Based on the results of the Olympic test event that took place in August 2019, the relay will take approximately 1 hour, 25 minutes.

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Triathlon

USA Triathlon

International Triathlon Union

Track and Field at the Tokyo Games will comprise 48 medal events across a variety of running, throwing and jumping disciplines:

  • 100m (M/W)
  • 200m (M/W)
  • 400m (M/W)
  • 800m (M/W)
  • 1500m (M/W)
  • 3000m Steeplechase (M/W)
  • 5000m (M/W)
  • 10,000m (M/W)
  • Marathon (M/W)
  • 110m Hurdles (M), 100m Hurdles (W)
  • 400m Hurdles (M/W)
  • 20km Walk (M/W)
  • 50km Walk (M)
  • 4x100m Relay (M/W)
  • 4x400m Relay (M/W/Mixed)
  • Discus (M/W)
  • Hammer (M/W)
  • Javelin (M/W)
  • Shot Put (M/W)
  • High Jump (M/W)
  • Long Jump (M/W)
  • Triple Jump (M/W)
  • Pole Vault (M/W)
  • Decathlon (M), Heptathlon (W)

The 4x400m mixed relay is new for Tokyo 2020. Entrants must feature two men and two women, but the order of runners is up to the team.

Running Events

100m

The 100m is the race to determine the fastest man and fastest woman in the world. At the Olympics, the event technically consists of four rounds, though athletes with the qualifying standard will not compete in the preliminary round.

  • Preliminary Round: This round is only for athletes who have not achieved the Olympic qualifying standard. The number of athletes who progress from the preliminary round to round one will depend on how many athletes have achieved the qualifying standard (and are thus already qualified for round one).
  • Round 1: Athletes who have achieved the qualifying standard will begin their competition in round one (rather than the preliminary round). Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out at this stage of the competition. In Rio, there were eight heats in round one in both the men’s and women’s 100m. The top two in each heat, plus the top eight fastest not already qualified, progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal Round: There are typically three semifinal heats (each featuring eight athletes). When three semifinals are contested, the top two in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: Eight athletes typically compete in the final. The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

200m

Athletes start using blocks and stay in their lane throughout the entire race. The 200m consists of three rounds: round one, the semifinals, and the final.

  • Round 1: Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out at this stage of the competition. In Rio, round one of the 200m featured 10 men’s heats and nine women’s heats. The top two in each heat, plus the fastest four men and fastest eight women not already qualified, progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal Round: There are typically three semifinal heats (each featuring eight athletes). When three semifinals are contested, the top two in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: Eight athletes typically compete in the final. The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

400m

Athletes run one lap around the track. They start in blocks and stay in their lane throughout the entire race. The 400m consists of three rounds: round one, the semifinals, and the final.

  • Round 1: Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out at this stage of the competition. In Rio, round one of the 400m featured seven men’s heats and eight women’s heats. The top three men in each heat — and next three fastest not already qualified — progressed to the semifinal round. The top two women in each heat — and next six fastest not already qualified — progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal Round: There are typically three semifinal heats (each featuring eight athletes). When three semifinals are contested, the top two in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

800m

The 800m is considered the shortest middle-distance event. Athletes complete two laps of the track. The race begins with each athlete in his/her own lane. After the first bend, athletes can leave their lanes and converge on the inner lane of the track. The 800m consists of three rounds: round one, the semifinals, and the final.

  • Round 1: Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out at this stage of the competition. In Rio, round one of the 800m featured seven men’s heats and eight women’s heats. The top three men in each heat — and next three fastest not already qualified — progressed to the semifinal round. The top two women in each heat — and next eight fastest not already qualified — progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal Round: There are typically three semifinal heats (each featuring eight athletes). When three semifinals are contested, the top two in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

1500m

In the 1500m, athletes run 3.75 laps around the track. Following the starting gun, they are allowed to immediately break for the inside of the track. The 1500m consists of three rounds: round one, the semifinals, and the final.

  • Round 1: Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out in round one. In Rio, round one of the 1500m featured three men’s heats and three women’s heats. The top six athletes in each heat — and the six fastest not already qualified — progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal: In Rio, there were two semifinal heats. The top five in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progressed to the final.
  • Final: The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

5000m

In the 5000m, athletes run 12.5 laps around the track. Athletes can break for the inside lane immediately following the starting gun. In Rio, the men’s race was won in just over 13 minutes and the last finisher crossed the line 40 seconds later. The women’s race was won in 14 minutes, 26 seconds, and the final competitor crossed the line in 16 minutes and 14 seconds.

  • Round 1: In Rio, round one of the 5000m featured two men’s heats and two women’s heats. The top five in each heat — and the five fastest not already qualified— progressed to the final.
  • Final: The final typically includes 15 athletes. The first athlete to cross the finish line is awarded the gold medal.

10,000m

The longest event to take place on the track, the 10,000m consists of 25 laps. There is no preliminary round, only a final. The first athlete to cross the finish line wins gold.

In Rio, the men’s race was won in 27 minutes, 5 seconds. The last finisher crossed the line in 29 minutes, 32 seconds. The women’s event was won in 29 minutes, 17 seconds. The final competitor crossed in 35 minutes, 33 seconds.

Marathon

At 26.2 miles, the marathon is the longest running event at the Olympics. (It is not the longest track and field event: the 50 km race walk is 7.8 km – about 4.8 miles – longer.) The marathon only has a final. The first athlete to cross the finish line is awarded the gold medal.

In Rio, the men’s marathon was won in 2 hours, 8 minutes. The top nine athletes all crossed within 2 hours, 12 minutes. The final finisher clocked in at 2 hours, 46 minutes. The women’s marathon was won in 2 hours, 24 minutes. The top 11 finishers all crossed within 2 hours, 29 minutes. The final finisher took 3 hours, 20 minutes.

Steeplechase

The steeplechase event is 3,000 meters long (about 7.5 laps). Because the water jump is typically inside the oval, competitors run slightly less than 400 meters per lap, so the final lap count and starting position is determined on a track-by-track basis. During the race, competitors clear 28 fixed barriers (typically four per lap) and seven water jumps (typically one per lap).

The men’s barriers are 36 inches tall, while the women’s barriers are 30 inches tall. The water jump has a landing area that is 12 feet long and 27 inches at its deepest.

The steeplechase features two rounds: round one and a final.

  • Round 1: In Rio, round one of both the men’s and women’s steeplechase featured three heats. The top three in each heat, plus the next six fastest not yet qualified, progressed to the final.
  • Final: The final typically includes 15 athletes. The first athlete to cross the finish line wins the gold medal.

Hurdles

Men’s 110m / Women’s 100m Hurdles

Athletes clear 10 hurdles while running the straightaway of the track. Men run 110 meters, while the women’s distance is 100 meters. The 110/100m hurdles consist of three rounds: round one, the semifinals, and the final.

  • Round 1: Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out in round one. In Rio, round one of the 110m/100m hurdles featured five men’s heats and six women’s heats. The top three in each women’s heat, plus the fastest six athletes not already qualified, progressed to the semifinal round. The top four men in each heat, plus the four fastest athletes not already qualified, progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal Round: There are typically three semifinal heats (each featuring eight athletes). When three semifinals are contested, the top two in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: The final typically includes eight athletes. The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

400m Hurdles

Athletes clear 10 hurdles while running one lap of the track. The 400m hurdles consist of three rounds: round one, the semifinals, and the final.

  • Round 1: Athletes are placed into heats based on their best time from the season so that top contenders are less likely to knock each other out in round one. In Rio, round one of the 400m hurdles featured six men’s heats and six women’s heats. The top three in each heat, plus the fastest six athletes not already qualified, progressed to the semifinal round.
  • Semifinal Round: There are typically three semifinal heats (each featuring eight athletes). When three semifinals are contested, the top two in each heat, plus the two fastest not already qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: The final includes eight athletes. The first athlete to cross the finish line will be awarded the gold medal.

Vertical Jumps

High Jump and Pole Vault

High Jump: In the high jump, competitors attempt to clear a 4-meter-long horizontal bar. The athlete who jumps the highest without knocking the bar to the ground is the winner.

Pole Vault: In the pole vault, competitors attempt to clear a horizontal bar by sprinting down a runway and using a pole to catapult themselves into the air. The athlete who vaults the highest without knocking the bar to the ground is the winner.

(The high jump and the pole vault use the same format at the Olympics)

General Rules

  • Each competitor may begin at any height above the starting mark. Athletes can elect to “pass” (i.e. advance to the next height without having cleared the current one). The bar is only raised, never lowered.
  • Athletes have three attempts to clear any given height. Once an athlete has three consecutive failures at a height (or multiple heights if he/she “passed” over a height), that athlete is not allowed to take any additional attempts at any height.

Qualifying Rounds

  • Ahead of the qualification round, World Athletics technical delegates will announce the qualifying round standard. All athletes who achieve that mark in the qualification round will automatically earn a spot in the final. If less than 12 athletes hit the qualifying round mark, the next highest ranked athlete(s), up to a total of at least 12, will be included in the final. If there is a tie for 12th, only the first two criteria in the tiebreaking procedures (listed below) will be used.
  • Once an athlete has secured a spot in the final, he/she stops competing in the qualifying round (even if he/she has more attempts).
  • The qualification round is typically held using two groups (A and B) so that the competition can move more quickly. These groups, which are equally weighted, usually compete simultaneously. In pole vault and high jump, this means that athletes in both groups are typically attempting the same height at the same time.

Final

  • Results from the qualifying round do not carry over into the final.
  • The final consists of 12 athletes (possibly more if there is a tie or if more than 12 achieve the required qualifying round mark).
  • Competition concludes when every athlete has recorded three consecutive failed attempts (except for the winner). If the winner still has more opportunities, he/she can elect to either stop or attempt a higher measure (often to attempt a personal best or world/Olympic record).

Tiebreaking Procedures

If, at the end of the competition, competitors are tied at the same height, the tie is broken using the following criteria:

  1. The athlete with the fewest failures at the tied height receives the higher placement
  2. If the competitors are still tied, the athlete with the fewest failures over the course of the entire competition will receive the higher placement

If they are still tied:

  • Qualification round: all tied athletes will progress to the final
  • Final: a jump-off will be used to determine the winner

Horizontal Jumps and Throws

Long Jump

Competitors sprint down a runway and leap as far as possible into a sand pit. Athletes may step on, but not over, the takeoff board. The distance jumped is measured from the end of the takeoff board to the first indentation in the sand pit.

Triple Jump

The triple jump has three components: the hop, the step (or skip), and the jump. Competitors sprint down a runway and take off a wooden board. (The jumper may step on, but not over, the takeoff board.) The athlete then lands on their take-off foot; this is “the hop.” The athlete then leaps to their opposite foot (“the step”) before finally “jumping” into the sand pit.

The total distance jumped is measured is from the end of the takeoff board to the first indentation in the sand pit.

Shot Put

While the shot put technically falls under “the throws,” the event involves athletes “putting” — not throwing — a shot (a metal ball) with one hand. A men’s shot weighs 16 pounds, while a women’s shot weighs 8 pounds.

Athletes begin by standing in a circle that is 7 feet in diameter. During the put, the hand holding the shot cannot be dropped below its starting position. In addition, the shot must not be brought in front of the line of the shoulders.

Competitors cannot touch the top of the toe board during their put or leave the circle at any stage of the put. The shot must land in a 35-degree sector of the field. Officials measure the distance from the nearest mark made by the shot to the inside circumference of the circle.

Discus

Athletes throw a metal discus as far as they can. Men use a discus that weighs 2 kg (4.4 pounds) and is 22 cm (8.66 inches) in diameter. A women’s discus is 1 kg (2.2 pounds) and 18 cm (7.09 inches) in diameter.

Athletes begin by standing in a circle that measures 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) in diameter. The thrower typically takes one and a half spins before releasing the discus. The discus must land inside a marked sector and the athlete must not leave the circle before it has landed.

Hammer

The hammer is a metal ball attached by a length of steel wire to a triangular grip. The ball weighs 16 pounds in the men’s event and 8.8 pounds in the women’s event.

Athletes begin by standing in a circle that is 7 feet in diameter. The thrower generally does three or four spins before releasing the hammer. In order for the throw to be measured, the hammer must land in a 35-degree sector of the field.

Javelin

Using one arm, athletes throw a javelin as far as possible. The athlete must hold the javelin by its corded grip.

A men’s javelin weighs at least 800 grams (1.67 pounds) and is 2.6 to 2.7 meters (8.53 to 8.85 feet) long. A women’s javelin weighs at least 600 grams (1.32 pounds) and is 2.2 to 2.3 meters (7.22 to 7.54 feet) long.

These events will feature two phases of competition in Tokyo: a qualifying round and a final.

Qualifying Round

  • Ahead of the qualifying round, the World Athletics technical delegates will announce the qualifying round standard. All athletes who achieve this mark in the qualifying round will automatically earn a spot in the final. If less than 12 athletes hit the qualifying round mark, the next highest ranked athlete(s), up to a total of at least 12, will be included in the final.
  • During the qualifying round, each athlete has three attempts, with only their best attempt counting. Once an athlete has secured a spot in the final, he/she stops competing in the qualifying round (even if he/she has more attempts).
  • The qualifying round is typically held using two groups (A and B) so that the competition can move more quickly. These groups are equally weighted. In long jump and triple jump, groups A and B typically compete simultaneously into separate sand pits. In the throwing events, group A usually competes before group B.

Final Round

  • Results from the qualifying round do not carry over into the final. The final consists of 12 athletes (possibly more if there is a tie or if more than 12 achieve the required qualifying round mark).
  • The final includes six rounds. The final rankings are determined using an athlete’s best result from any round in the final.
  • After every athlete has taken three attempts, the lowest-ranked athletes (usually four athletes, but potentially more if over 12 athletes make the final) are eliminated from the competition. The remaining eight competitors take another three attempts. If competitors are tied, the athlete with the next best attempt is declared the winner.

Multi-Events

Decathlon

The decathlon is a 10-event competition that takes place over two consecutive days. Competitors earn points based on their result (i.e. time or distance) in each event, not their placement (i.e. first or second). Points are calculated using the official World Athletics decathlon scoring tables.

The gold medalist is the man who earns the most points across all 10 events.

Events are held in the following order:

Day 1 Day 2
100m 110m Hurdles
Long Jump Discus
Shot Put Pole Vault
High Jump Javelin
400m 1500m

The rules governing the individual disciplines also govern the decathlon, with these notable exceptions:

  1. In running events, one false start is allowed to the field and any second false start by anyone in the field results in automatic disqualification of that runner.
  2. In the long jump and the throws, a competitor receives only three attempts, not six.
  3. In the vertical jumps (high jump and pole vault), each increase of the bar shall be uniform throughout the competition: 3 cm in the high jump and 10 cm in the pole vault.

Ties are not broken.

Heptathlon

The heptathlon is a seven-event competition that takes place over two consecutive days. Competitors earn points for their performance in each discipline. Points are calculated using the official World Athletics heptathlon scoring tables.

The gold medalist is the woman who earns the most points across all seven events.

Events are held in the following order:

Day 1 Day 2
100m Hurdles Long Jump
High Jump Javelin
Shot Put 800m
200m

The rules governing the individual disciplines also govern the heptathlon, with these notable exceptions:

  1. In running events, one false start is allowed to the field and any second false start by anyone in the field results in automatic disqualification of that runner.
  2. In the long jump and the throws, a competitor receives only three attempts, not six.
  3. In the high jump, each increase of the bar shall be uniform throughout the competition (3 cm).
    Ties are not broken.

Race Walks

20km Walk

The distance for the 20km walk is equivalent to 12.427 miles.

In Rio, the winner of the men’s event finished in 1 hour, 19 minutes. The top 11 finishers all clocked in under 1 hour, 21 minutes. The last finisher crossed in 1 hour, 33 minutes.

The women’s event was won in 1 hour, 28 minutes. The top 10 athletes all finished within 1 hour, 31 minutes. The final finisher crossed in 1 hour, 45 minutes.

Men’s 50km Walk

The distance for the 50km walk is equivalent to 31.07 miles.

In Rio, the men’s event was won in 3 hours, 40 minutes. The top four finishers all crossed in under 3 hours, 42 minutes. The final finisher clocked 4 hours, 39 minutes.

Race Walk Rules

  • Race walking differs from running in several major ways: to start, one foot most always be in contact with the ground; breaking this rule is called “lifting.” In addition, rules state that an athlete’s advancing leg must remain straight from the point of contact with the ground until his/her body passes over it.
  • Judges observe the race and caution competitors if it appears they are breaking these rules. Three violations during a race leads to disqualification.
  • There are no preliminary rounds in the race walking events, only finals. The first athlete to cross the finish line wins gold.

Relays

4x100m Relay

Relay teams includes four athletes from the same nation. Each athlete runs 100 meters before passing the baton to the next athlete. Each team stays in the same lane throughout the 4x100m relay.

  • Passing the Baton: Athletes have 20 meters to pass the baton; the changeover box is situated 10 meters before and 10 meters after the start of each subsequent leg. Disqualifications – for dropping the baton, passing the baton outside of the changeover zone, or crossing into another team’s lane – are common.
  • First Round: A maximum of 16 nations will qualify teams. There are two semifinal heats, each featuring eight teams. The top three teams in each heat, plus the next two fastest not yet qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: Eight teams typically compete in the final (it is possible for officials to rule that another team should be advanced in the event of a collision or rule violation by another team in the semifinal round). The first team across the finish line, baton in hand, wins. All athletes who competed in either round (first round or final) receive medals. However, typically only the four athletes who competed in the final participate in the official medal ceremony.

4x400m Relay and Mixed 4x400m Relay

Each team includes four athletes from the same nation. Each athlete runs 400m before passing the baton to the next athlete. Athletes pass the baton in the changeover zone, which is located from 10 meters before to 10 meters after the finish line. For the first 1.75 laps, each nation stays in its own line. At the beginning of the back stretch of the second lap, runners can converge on the inside lane.

The mixed 4x400m relay will make its Olympic debut in Tokyo. Each team must include two men and two women in each round. Any athlete can run any leg, though most teams at 2019 Worlds used a male-female-female-male order.

  • First Round: A maximum of 16 nations will qualify teams. There are two semifinal heats, each featuring eight teams. The top three teams in each heat, plus the next two fastest not yet qualified, progress to the final.
  • Final: Eight teams typically compete in the final (it is possible for officials to rule that another team should be advanced in the event of a collision or rule violation by another team in the semifinal round). Teams can use different athletes for the final than the preliminary round. The first team across the finish line, baton in hand, wins. All athletes who competed in either round (first round or final) receive medals. However, typically only the four athletes who competed in the final participate in the official medal ceremony.

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Track & Field

USA Track & Field

International federation

Overview

Surfing will make its Olympic debut in Tokyo. A total of 40 athletes (20 men and 20 women) are expected to compete. The men’s and women’s competitions will use the same format and rules.

Two events will be contested in Tokyo:

  • Men’s Surfing* (or Men’s Event)
  • Women’s Surfing* (or Women’s Event)

The surfing schedule is dependent on expected wave conditions. While the norm for some Olympic sports is to postpone competition in case of bad weather, surfing is known to postpone competition if better conditions are expected later. If conditions allow, competition can be completed in just four days, but it is possible that more time will be required. A nine day waiting period is allotted to ensure competition can happen on days with the best conditions. 

Competition

Competition is broken into multiple rounds:

Round 1 (20 surfers):

This portion of the competition consists of five heats of four surfers. Heat start lists are determined by each surfer’s world ranking so that the best surfers in the world aren’t pitted against each other. The top two surfers from each heat will advance directly to round 3. The bottom two surfers will move onto round 2.

Round 2 (10 surfers):

This is essentially a ‘second chance’ round that only consists of surfers who did not advance out of round 1. Heats are determined with a combination of a surfer’s world ranking, as well as his/her result from round 1. Round 2 will feature two heats of five surfers. The top three surfers in each heat will advance to round 3, while the bottom two surfers will be eliminated from medal contention.

Round 3 (16 surfers):

This starts the direct-elimination portion of the competition. Surfers are seeded into a bracket using their results from the first two rounds, as well as their world ranking. Round 3 features eight heats of two surfers. The eight winners in round 3 advance to the quarterfinal round, while the eight losers will be eliminated from medal contention.

Quarterfinals (8 surfers):

The quarterfinals feature four heats of two surfers. The four winners will progress to the semifinal round, while the four losers are eliminated from medal contention.

Semifinals (4 surfers):

There are two semifinals of two surfers. The two winners will progress to the gold medal heat, while the losers will advance to the bronze medal heat.

Gold and Bronze Medal Finals (4 surfers):

Athletes will compete for podium positions, with the two semifinal winners competing against each other for gold, and the two semifinal losers competing for bronze.

Heat Overview

Heat Length:

Each heat can last 20, 25, 30, or 35 minutes. Heat duration is determined by the technical director at the start of that day’s competition.

Wave Limit:

Ahead of each day’s competition, the technical director will announce the wave limit for each heat; this is the maximum number of waves that each surfer can ride during a heat.

Scoring:

Each wave that a surfer rides is evaluated by a panel of five judges on a scale of 0.1 to 10.0. The highest and lowest of the five scores are discarded. The surfer’s score is the average of the three remaining marks. Each surfer’s two best scoring waves are added together to determine their heat total (out of a possible 20 points).

Tiebreaking

If two or more surfers are tied at the end of a heat, ties will be broken as follows:

  1. Highest single wave score during the heat
  2. Highest total of three wave scores during the heat (then four waves, five waves, etc.)
  3. The scores will be re-tabulated using all five judges’ scores (instead of just the middle three)

If a tie cannot be broken using the above criteria, a re-surf involving the tied surfers will be held.

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Surfing

USA Surfing

International Surfing Association

 

Competition Overview

The softball tournament (women only) will include six teams that will compete in two phases: an opening round and a medal round. Each team can include 15 players on its roster, with nine players on the field at a time.

During each game, two teams will compete head-to-head. The teams alternate between batting and fielding, each session of which is called an inning (which includes both a “top” and a “bottom”), switching roles when the fielding team gets three opposing players out. The “away” team bats first (the “top” of the inning), while the home team bats second (the “bottom” of the inning).

The team with the most runs after seven innings wins. No game will end in a tie. If the score is tied after seven complete innings, the game will continue until one team has outscored the other at the conclusion of a complete inning.

There are no time-outs during the game and only a 90-second break between innings.

Opening Round

All six teams will play one game against each of the other five teams.

At the end of the opening round, teams will be ranked based on their win-loss record. The four top-ranked teams will progress to the medal games, with the top two teams playing for gold, and the third and fourth-ranked teams playing for bronze.

If two teams are tied using their win-loss record, they will be ranked by the result of the game played between them.

If more than two teams are tied on win-loss record, they will be ranked using the following criteria (in this order):

  1. By the results of the games between the tied teams in the opening round.
  2. By their runs against record in the games between the tied teams; the team with the lowest runs against record is ranked highest, the team with the second lowest runs against record is ranked next, etc., until two tied teams remain and they can be ranked by the result of their game in the opening round.
  3. If the teams are still tied, they will be ranked using their runs against record in all opening round games. The team with the lowest runs against record is ranked highest, the team with the second lowest runs against record is ranked next, etc., until two tied teams remain and they can be ranked by the result of their game in the opening round.

Medal Games

The teams in the medal games are determined using the opening round rankings. A single game will determine the winner of each medal.

  • Bronze medal game: Third-Ranked Team (home team) vs. Fourth-Ranked Team (away team)
  • Gold medal game: First-Ranked Team (home team) vs Second-Ranked Team (away team

 

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Softball

USA Softball

World Baseball Softball Confederation

 

The Sailing regatta at the Tokyo Games will comprise 10 medal events (five for men, four for women, one for a man/woman duo):

  • Men’s RS:X (1-person windsurfer)
  • Men’s Laser (1-person dinghy)
  • Men’s Finn (1-person heavyweight dinghy)
  • Men’s 470 (2-person dinghy)
  • Men’s 49er (2-person skiff)
  • Women’s RS:X (1-person windsurfer)
  • Women‘s Laser Radial (1-person dinghy)
  • Women’s 470 (2-person dinghy)
  • Women’s 49er FX (2-person skiff)
  • Mixed Foiling Narca 17 (2-person multihull)

The venue for sailing at the Tokyo Olympics is the Enoshima Yacht Harbor, which was built for the 1964 Tokyo Games.

The first Olympian to capture four gold medals in the same individual event — in any sport — was Danish sailor Paul Elvstrom, who won the Finn class in 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1960. Another Finn medalist of note is John Bertrand, who earned bronze in 1976 before skippering Australia II to victory at the 1983 America’s Cup, ending 132-year domination by American sailors.

Events with 10 Opening Series Races:

  • Men’s Laser
  • Women’s Laser Radial
  • Men’s Finn
  • Men’s 470
  • Women’s 470

Events with 12 Opening Series Races:

  • Men’s Windsurfer
  • Women’s Windsurfer
  • Men’s 49er
  • Women’s 49er FX
  • Mixed Nacra 17

Opening Series

All competitors/crews will participate in the opening 10- or 12-race series where a low-point scoring system will be used. The winner of each race receives one point, the second-place finisher receives two points, and so on. Failure to finish or disqualification results in the earning of one more point than the total number of competitors (i.e. if there are 20 competitors in an event, a failure to finish would earn a crew 21 points).

At the end of the opening 10- or 12-race series, each crew/competitor’s score from their worst performance will be discarded. The remaining points will determine the rankings.

Medal Race

The ten competitors/ crews with the best (lowest) overall score from the opening series compete in the medal race. Points earned in the medal race are doubled (two points for first place, four points for second, and so on) and added to the total points from the opening series to determine the final rankings.

Schedule & Weather Delays

Sailing is weather dependent; sailing competitions are known for competition schedule changes, which can be made due to not enough wind, too much wind, or unstable wind. If weather conditions on any given day are not ideal, racing may be delayed until the wind is considered suitable by the race committee.

All classes will initially be scheduled to sail two races on each day during the scheduled competition, except the windsurfer, 49ers and Nacra 17 classes, which will sail three races on each day of the scheduled competition. Due to weather conditions, up to one extra race per day may be sailed, with no event being more than one race ahead of the schedule.

It is possible that, due to unsuitable wind conditions, not all scheduled races will be completed by the end of competition. In such cases, at least one race must have been sailed in order to award medals. If the medal race is not completed, medals will be awarded based on the series score for the prior races.

Tie Break Rules

Any tie after the medal race will be broken in favor of the boat finishing with the better placement in the medal race.

If the medal race is not completed, medals will be awarded based on the series total score. If two or more competitors are tied, a two-stage tie break procedure is used.

Ties are broken in favor of the competitor who has:

  1. The most number of first places, then second places, etc.
  2. Achieved a higher placing in the last race of the event

Duration

Here’s the expected duration of each event according to World Sailing (as of December 2019):

Event Opening Series Medal Race
Men’s Windsurfer 20-25 minutes 20 minutes
Women’s Windsurfer 20-25 minutes 20 minutes
Men’s Laser 50 minutes 25 minutes
Women’s Laser Radial 50 minutes 25 minutes
Men’s Finn 50 minutes 25 minutes
Men’s 470 50 minutes 25 minutes
Women’s 470 50 minutes 25 minutes
Men’s 49er 30 minutes 20 minutes
Women’s 49er FX 30 minutes 20 minutes
Mixed Nacra 17 30 minutes 20 minutes

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Sailing

USA Sailing

World Sailing

Modern pentathlon at the Tokyo Games will comprise two medal events, one for men and one for women. The sport, as the name suggests, features five distinct disciplines, which are contested across four phases of competition in a single day, in the following order:

  1. Fencing (epee)
  2. Swimming (200m freestyle)
  3. Riding (jumping)
  4. Shooting (20 targets) and Running (four 800m laps)

A men’s team event was contested from 1952-1992, with the United States winning three silver medals and a bronze. Individually, the last American man to climb an Olympic podium in modern pentathlon was Bob Beck (silver) at the 1960 Rome Games. The U.S. has one women’s medal: Emily Deriel’s silver from the 2000 Sydney Games, where the women’s event debuted.

Overview

Two events will be contested in Tokyo:

  • Men’s individual competition
  • Women’s individual competition

Modern Pentathlon features five disciplines: fencing, riding, swimming and a combined running/shooting event called the laser run. Both the men’s and the women’s competition take two days. The fencing ranking rounds for both men and women will take place on day one while swimming, the fencing bonus round, riding, and the laser run will take place on day two (women) and day three (men). Points earned in the first three events decide the starting position for the laser run. The first athlete to cross the finish line wins the gold medal.

Fencing

Ranking Round

The ranking round is organized as a round robin. Each of the 36 athletes will fence against all other athletes in 35 bouts, each lasting one minute. If a touch is not scored within that time limit, both competitors register a defeat.

A total score of 70% victories (25 bouts) equals 250 MP (Modern Pentathlon) points. Each victory adds six MP points and each defeat deducts six MP points. If an athlete fails to score any victories in the ranking round they will score zero MP points.

The ranking round will take approximately three hours.

Bonus Round

Points earned in the ranking round carry over to the bonus round. All 36 athletes participate in the fencing bonus round. The start list is based on the results of the ranking round. The two lowest ranked competitors from the ranking round face each other in a 30-second elimination-style bout with the winner advancing to face the next lowest ranked competitor. This continues until all athletes have competed in the bonus round. Each victory is worth one MP point except the final bout, where the top ranked fencer can score two MP points with a win. Athletes do not lose points if they are defeated.

The bonus round will take approximately one-hour.

Swimming

Athletes swim a 200m freestyle race. Each athlete is placed into a heat based on their fastest Pentathlon World Ranking (PWR) swimming time within the last 12 months. Points are awarded based on finishing times, rather than placement.

A time of 2 minutes, 30 seconds earns 250 Modern Pentathlon points. One MP point is added or deducted for every half-second faster or slower than this time. A false start is given 10 penalty points.

The men’s and women’s swimming portion will each take approximately 30 minutes.

Riding

The athletes must complete 15 jumps over 12 show jumping obstacles. Athletes are paired with their horse using a draw (all athletes complete the riding portion of the competition on a horse they’ve never practiced with). Once paired, each athlete has 20 minutes to warmup with their horse before they compete.

The start order is the reverse of the overall ranking after the previous events.

Jumps are up to 120 cm (about 47 inches) tall and 130 cm (about 51 inches) wide, and include one double and one triple obstacle.

In a change since Rio, the riding show jumping course is now between 400m to 450m in length. The time allowed for the competition depends on the course, but will be between 1 minute and 1 minute, 9 seconds. Competitors start with 300 points and have points deducted for penalties (which are detailed in the rule book).

The men’s and women’s riding portion will each take approximately 1 hour, 10 minutes.

Laser Run

In this final combined event, athletes will run four circuits of a course. Each circuit includes five shooting targets at one station (for a total of 20 targets over the course of the run). Competitors stand 10 meters away from the targets and have 50 seconds to shoot all five using a laser pistol. The competitor with the most MP points from the first three events will start first while the remaining athletes will start with a time handicap of 1 second for every one MP point behind the leader. The athlete who crosses the finish line first wins the gold medal.

The men and women’s laser run will each take approximately 20 minutes.

Tie-Break Rules

If there is a tie in MP points between two or more athletes after two, three or four phases and placings cannot be determined by laser-run photo-finish, the athlete with the best result in the last phase will be ranked in the higher position. If the tie remains, the athlete with the best result in the previous phase will be ranked in the higher position, and so on. If the tie cannot be broken, the athlete with the higher PWR will be ranked higher.

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Modern Pentathlon

World Pentathlon

USA Modern Pentathlon

Overview

Karate will make its Olympic debut at the Tokyo Games and feature eight medal events, four for men and four for women:

  • Men’s Kumite 67kg
  • Men’s Kumite 75kg
  • Men’s Kumite +75kg
  • Men’s Kata
  • Women’s Kumite 55kg
  • Women’s Kumite 61kg
  • Women’s Kumite +61kg
  • Women’s Kata

Kata

Kata is a demonstration of karate techniques using pre-defined movements judged on speed, strength, focus, balance, rhythm, etc. Athletes choose from roughly 100 kata – while the timing of each kata varies, they are typically 3-4 minutes long. Athletes progress to the next round by outscoring their opponents.

Scoring

Athletes must perform a different kata each time. Scores run from 0-100, but an athlete typically scores anywhere from 50-100 and would only receive a score of 0 if he or she is disqualified. Seven judges will evaluate the performance based on:

  • Technical performance (weighted 70% of the total score)
  • Athletic performance (weighted 30% of the total score)

The two highest and two lowest judges scores for technical and athletic performance will be eliminated, and the total score is calculated based on the weighting described above.

There are three rounds of competition in kata:

  • Elimination Round
  • Ranking Round
  • Medal Bouts

Elimination Round

Athletes are divided into two pools (A and B) of five athletes. Each athlete performs a kata one by one from a predefined kata list. All athletes then perform a second kata. The athletes are ranked according to the average score of the two kata. The top four athletes in each pool qualify for the ranking round, while the lowest-ranked athletes in each pool are eliminated and will be classified as ninth or tenth, based on the total of points they get in the two katas.

Tiebreaking

Japan is expected to excel in karate when it plays host to the Olympics, having earned more world titles and medals than any other country.

Ranking Round

Consists of two pools (A and B) of four athletes. The athletes perform another kata one by one. Start order is determined by a draw. The winners in each pool will compete for the gold medal. The 2nd-ranked athlete from Pool A competes against the 3rd-ranked athlete from pool B, and the 2nd-ranked athlete from pool B competes against the 3rd ranked athlete from pool A in the bronze medal bouts, so two bronze medals will be awarded in men’s and women’s kata. The 4th-place athlete is each pool is eliminated.

Tiebreaking

If two or more athletes have the same score, the following criteria will be used to break the tie:

  • Highest total score of the technical criteria (before it is weighted as part of the total score)
  • The highest value of the technical criteria lowest score not included
  • If there is still a tie, there are additional criteria that can be used. The manual will contain a full list of tie-breaking procedures.

Medal Bouts

Athletes perform a kata one by one from a predefined kata list, while the opponent waits outside of the bout area. After both athletes have performed, they will stand side by side to wait for the judges to cast their votes. Starting order is determined by their results in the previous round (the competitor who scored higher wears a red belt and goes first; the competitor who scored lower wears a blue belt and goes second). The athlete who receives the higher score wins the bout.

Tiebreaking

If two or more athletes have the same score, the following criteria will be used to break the tie

  • The highest total score of the technical criteria before the multiplication for the factor of the total score (70%)
  • The highest value of the technical criteria lowest score not included
  • If there is still a tie, there are additional criteria that can be used. The manual will contain a full list of tie-breaking procedures.

Kumite

Kumite is the fighting discipline. Athletes compete head-to-head against each other using punching and kicking techniques performed on permitted parts of the body, aiming to earn a higher score than their opponent. Each kumite bout lasts three minutes.

Individual Events

  • Men’s 67 kg
  • Men’s 75 kg
  • Men’s 75+ kg
  • Women’s 55 kg
  • Women’s 61 kg
  • Women’s 61+ kg

Scoring

Athletes receive points for correctly executed techniques. One referee, four judges and a match supervisor manage the bout. The winner is the athlete with the highest number of points at full time, or who gains an eight-point lead before full time.

Elimination Round

Contested in two pools (A and B) of five athletes in each pool. Athletes compete against the other athletes in their pools and are ranked according to results achieved in their pool (number of points and the scores). An athlete receives two points for winning a bout, and one point for a tie. The top two athletes from each pool (based on points earned for each bout) qualify for the semifinals.
If the score is equal at full time of a bout, the winner is the athlete who has scored first (which is called Senshu).

Tiebreaking

If there is a tie between two or more athletes to decide who will advance to the semifinals, the criteria below are used to break the tie:

  • Winner of the bouts between the tied athletes
  • Higher number of scores obtained in favor of each athlete in all bouts
  • Lower number of scores against each athlete in all bouts
  • There are several more criteria that can be used to break ties if a tie remains. The manual will contain full details of tie-breaking procedures

Semifinals/Finals

The winner of pool A competes against the 2nd-ranked athlete from pool B, and the winner from pool B competes against the 2nd-ranked athlete from pool A. The winners of the semifinals compete for the gold medal; the semifinal losers are both awarded bronze medals.

Tiebreaking

In case the score is 0-0 during semifinals or the final, meaning no athlete has scored first, the winner is determined by majority vote of the four judges and the referee. If the score is tied beyond 0-0, the athlete who scores first will break the tie, unless the athletes loses the Senshu privilege due to infractions. In that case, the referee indicates the loss of Senshu by raising his or her hand with the palm backward and crossing arms. In this case, the tie is broken by judges’ decision.

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Karate

USA Karate

World Karate Federation

Overview

Judo at the Tokyo Games will comprise 15 medal events:

  • Men’s 60kg
  • Men’s 66kg
  • Men’s 73kg
  • Men’s 81kg
  • Men’s 90kg
  • Men’s 100kg
  • Men’s 100+kg
  • Women’s 48kg
  • Women’s 52kg
  • Women’s 57kg
  • Women’s 63kg
  • Women’s 70kg
  • Women’s 78kg
  • Women’s 78+kg
  • Mixed Team

Judo, which means “gentle way,” originated in Japan and has been a reliable source of Olympic success for the 2020 host nation. Japan’s collection of total medals (84) and gold medals (39) are by far the most, with France (49 total, 14 gold) a distant second.

Individual Events

Tournament Overview

386 judokas (193 men, 193 women) compete across 14 weight classes (seven for men, seven for women), with approximately 28 judokas in each weight class.

The top eight in each weight class are seeded based on their IJF (International Judo Federation) world rankings.

While the full judo program lasts eight days, each individual weight class unfolds in just one day. One men’s and one women’s event takes place each day (progressing from the lightest weight classes to the heaviest), followed by the mixed team event on the last day.

The tournament is direct elimination until the quarterfinals.

The four quarterfinal losers proceed to the repechage (second-chance bracket), where they face the other quarterfinal loser from the same side of the bracket. The two quarterfinal repechage winners then face the semifinal loser from the opposite side of the bracket, and the winners of those two matches are awarded bronze medals (two bronze medals are awarded).

The two semifinal winners face each other for the gold medal.

Match Overview

Each match takes place over a single four-minute period, or until one judoka scores the following:

An ippon

  • Throwing an opponent on his or her back with strength, speed and control
  • Holding an opponent down for 20 seconds
  • When an opponent gives up due to an arm-lock or choking

Two scores of waza-ari

  • Throwing an opponent with control, but not to the extent of an ippon
  • Holding an opponent down for 10-19 seconds

Hansoku-make

  • A major rule infringement, which also results in expulsion from the tournament
  • Three shidos (minor rule infringements), which result in a hansoku-make
  • A hansoku-make results in victory for the opponent

There are no designated rest periods within a match. However, the referee will stop the clock during breaks in the action to ensure that the athletes compete for the full four minutes. For example, when an athlete steps out of bounds, the clock is stopped until both athletes return inside the contest area or to their starting positions.

Golden Score

If a match has not been decided when four minutes run out, it proceeds to golden score, which has no time limit. Golden score usually ends within a few minutes, but in extreme cases can last upwards of ten minutes. The first judoka to score an ippon or waza-ari wins. Shidos carry over to golden score, so if a judoka receives a third shido, that also ends the match.

Mixed Team Event

Tournament Overview

2020 marks the Olympic debut for the judo mixed team event.

  • A minimum of 12 teams compete. Each team selects judokas who qualified for the individual competition to compete across six weight categories (three men and three women)
    • Men: 73 kg, 90 kg, 90+ kg
    • Women: 57 kg, 70 kg, 70+ kg
  • Teams are drawn into a bracket to start the competition, with the top four teams seeded based on their IJF team world rankings. Teams face off against each other, with all six judokas from one team competing against the six judokas from the other team
  • Judokas can go up in weight class (for instance, a woman who competed in 52 kg in the individual event can compete in 57 kg in the mixed team event)
  • The same individual match rules apply to the matches in the team competition
  • Each of the six individual matches counts as one point. If the score is tied at three, one of the six weight categories is chosen at random, and judokas in that class face off in a seventh match to decide which team wins. This seventh match begins immediately as golden score
  • The tournament is direct elimination until the quarterfinals. The four quarterfinal losers proceed to the repechage (“second chance”) bracket, where they face the other quarterfinal loser from the same side of the bracket. The two quarterfinal repechage winners then face the semifinal loser from the opposite side of the bracket, and the winners of those two matches are awarded bronze medals (two bronze medals are awarded). The two semifinal winners face each other for the gold medal

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Judo

USA Judo

International Judo Federation

 

 

Overview

There are three separate disciplines in Olympic equestrian competition: dressage, evening, and jumping, Each discipline has an individual and team competition. Additionally, eventing combines the results of three distinct disciplines (dressage, cross country and jumping) to determine an overall score.

Equestrian is the only Olympic sport involving animals, and one of few in which men and women compete head to head.

Eventing

Team

Fifteen teams of three athlete/horse combinations compete three different tests (detailed below). Each discipline’s competition (or test) takes place on consecutive days in this order: dressage, cross country, jumping. The results of each event count toward both the eventing team and individual events.

Final ranking in each event is based on the combined total of penalty points from all tests (so the team with the lowest number of penalty points wins). After the three tests, team medals are awarded.

  • Dressage: set of compulsory movements that evaluate the horse’s obedience, flexibility and harmony with the athlete. Judges award marks for each movement and the total score is converted into penalty points. Start order is determined by a draw.
  • Cross country: consists of one test in which each athlete/horse combination attempts to complete the course without jumping errors in a set amount of time. Athletes receive penalties for faults at obstacles or excess time. Penalty points are added to the penalty points from the dressage test and carried forward to the jumping test. The test takes roughly 10 minutes. Start order remains the same as for the Dressage test.
  • Jumping: final test of eventing, which involves 9 to 12 obstacles. The first jumping test determines team classification; second jumping test determines individual classification (see below). A test typically takes less than two minutes. Start order for teams is determined by reverse order of the results after the cross country test; athletes not competing on teams will go first in reverse order after the cross country test, followed by teams in reverse order of placement after the cross country test (so that the athlete to jump last will be the highest placed athlete from the highest placed team)

Individual

The 25 best placed athletes after the three portions of the team event (dressage, cross country, jumping) qualify to participate in the individual event – which consists solely of a jumping individual final (no additional cross country or dressage portions). The penalty score of this additional jumping test is added to the other three penalty scores from the team event to determine individual placement (so the athlete with the lowest total of penalty points wins).

Start order is determined by the reverse order of results after the three team tests (with the best-placed athlete going last).

In the case of a tie, individual classification is decided as follows:

  • Best overall cross country score
  • Cross country time closest to the optimum time
  • Best individual final jumping score
  • Further tie breaking procedures will be outlined in the manual

Dressage

Team

Dressage involves a set of compulsory movements performed by a horse/athlete combination which are intended to evaluate the horses’ obedience, flexibility and harmony with the athlete. Judges award marks for each movement. Teams are comprised of three athlete/horse combinations.

Qualification (Grand Prix) All 60 athletes compete in the “Grand Prix,” test which counts toward qualification for both the team event and individual event. Athletes are drawn into six groups of 10. The start order within each group is the reverse order of world rankings in that group (i.e., the member with the best world ranking in the group will go last in that group).

Team Final (Grand Prix Special) After the Grand Prix, the top eight teams (including any teams tied for 8th) will qualify for the team final (Grand Prix Special), which is set to music. The three athletes in each team will be divided into three groups, with one athlete per team in each group, determined by each team’s leader. In Groups 1 and 2, athletes’ starting order isbased on reverse ranking of the qualified teams in the Grand Prix competition. There will be a break (approx. 60 minutes) after Groups 1 and 2 have competed, and an intermediate team standing will be updated. In Group 3, athletes start in reverse order of those current standings, based on results of team athletes after Group 2.

Points are not carried forward from the Grand Prix (qualification). The team with the highest total number of points of their three athletes after their results in the Grand Prix Special wins gold.

Ties in the team final (Grand Prix Special)

Classification will be decided based on:

  1. The best result by the lowest scoring team member in the Grand Prix Special
  2. If there is still a tie, the same rule is applied to the next lowest scoring athlete

For teams placed 9th and below that do not qualify to the Grand Prix Special, the same rules apply to determine classification from the Grand Prix.

Individual

As mentioned above, the top two athletes from each of the six groups of 10 plus the next best six ranked athletes in the Grand Prix qualify for the individual final, called the Grand Prix Freestyle. Scores do not carry over. Start order in the freestyle test is determined by draw within three groups of six, with the group of athletes ranked 13-18 starting first and the group of athletes placed 1-6 going last.

The athlete with the highest final percentage in the Grand Prix Freestyle competition wins gold.

Ties in the qualification (Grand Prix)

Classification is decided as follows:

  1. Highest and lowest total scores for each athlete are added and divided by two, with the highest score deciding the tie
  2. If still tied, the second highest and lowest total scores for each athlete are used following the same procedure, then the third
  3. If still tied, the classification is decided by a draw

Ties in the individual final (Grand Prix Freestyle)

Classification is decided as follows:

  1. Artistic marks from the Grand Prix Freestyle are used to break the tie
  2. If still tied, marks for harmony will be used to break the tie
  3. If still tied, marks for choreography will be used to break the tie

Jumping

Team

The team jumping competition follows the individual competition and includes a team qualifier and final. A team consists of three athlete/horse combinations.

In each round of jumping competition, athletes jump a series of obstacles that could include water jumps, parallel rails, triple bars, etc., designed to test the athlete’s skill and the horse’s jumping capabilities. Penalties are given for faults such as knocking down an obstacle, refusals and exceeding the time allowed. Teams are ranked according to the sum of penalties incurred by each of the three athletes on the team. The winning team will have the lowest score.

Qualifier
Twenty teams compete in the qualifier. Team scores are based on the sum of the penalties of the three athletes on the team. Lower scores are better.

For starting order, teams are divided into two groups of 10 based on world rankings. The 10 teams with the most points will be in the group that starts last, and the 10 teams with the fewest points will be in the group that starts first. Start order within each group is determined by a draw, and the starting order of team members within each team is established by each team’s Chef d’Equipe. The first athlete in Group 1 will start, followed by the first athlete in Group 2, then the second athlete in Group 1, and so on.

The top 10 teams progress to the team final. Scores are not carried over.

Tie Break Rules – Qualifier
If there is a tie for the last qualification place, teams will be separated by the faster combined time of their three athletes.

Final Top 10 teams from qualification compete with scores awarded based on the sum of the penalties of the three athletes on the team.

Start order is based on reverse order of qualification results. After the first two athletes of all teams have taken part, there is a 20-minute break.

The team with the lowest sum of penalty points will win gold, second-lowest silver, and so on.

Tie Break Rules – Final
Classification will be decided as follows if there is a tie:

  1. Tie for first place (same number of penalties) will be broken by a jump-off. A jump-off is conducted against the clock on a course with at least six obstacles. The team with the slowest combined time starts first. Starting order in jump-off will be based on the combined times of each team’s three athletes in the team final, and the team with the slowest combined time starting first. If teams are tied on penalties for any other placement, they will be placed according to the combined penalties and time.
  2. If there is a tie for second or third place on penalties and time (and no more than two teams tied on penalties for first place), a jump-off will be held to determine those placements, and it will be held before the jump-off for first place if applicable. Starting order in jump-off(s) will be based on the combined times of each team’s three athletes in the team final, and the team with the slowest combined time starting first.
  3. Tie for all other places (same number of penalties) will be broken by the combined penalties and times of their three athletes in the jump-off.

Teams in the jump-off are placed according to the combined penalties of their three athletes in the jump-off. If after the jump-off teams are still equal on penalties and time for one of the podium positions, they will share the same place.

Individual

Individual competition includes a qualifier and a final and is contested over two days.

Qualifier
Up to 75 athletes compete in the individual qualifier, which is not run against the clock and includes 12-14 obstacles. Athletes who will compete in the team jumping competition are sorted into groups based on the Nations Cup rankings of their countries, with all members of the same team in the same group. Individual athletes who are only competing in the individual competition are sorted by world rankings. Both nations and athletes ranked highest will be in the final group; second-ranked nation or individual athlete in the group that starts second, etc. Starting order within the groups is decided by a computerized draw. The top 30 athletes advance to the final. No scores are carried over.

Ties in the qualifier
If there is a tie on penalties for the last qualification place to advance to the final, athletes are separated by time. If any athletes tied cannot be separated, they will all qualify for the final.

Final
Thirty athletes compete in a single-round competition against the clock, and the athlete with the lowest sum of penalties wins. Starting order will be based on reverse order of classification in qualifiers.

Athletes are placed according to their penalties and times in the individual final. If there is a jump-off to break a tie (see below), athletes are placed based on their penalties and tie in the jump-off.

Ties in the final

  1. A tie for first place (same number of penalties and same time) will be broken by a jump-off against the clock. Start order is based on time in the final – slowest athlete starts first; faster athlete goes last. In the jump-off, athletes race against the clock over a minimum of six obstacles.
  2. If there are no more than two athletes tied on penalties for first place and there are athletes tied on penalties and time for second or third place, there will also be a jump-off for to decide those places. Start order for this jump-off will follow the same order as the individual final.
  3. If athletes have equal penalties and time in the jump-off, they will share the same rank.

More information:

Official Tokyo site – Equestrian

US Equestrian Federation

International Equestrian Federation