Scoring terminology

Double eagle: A score of three under par on a hole (also known as an albatross).

Eagle: A score of two under par on a hole.

Birdie: A score of one under par on a hole.

Par: A score of even on a hole. Also refers to the predetermined number of shots that a proficient golfer should require to complete a given hole.

Bogey: A score of one over par on a hole.

Double bogey: A score of two over par on a hole (followed by triple bogey, quadruple bogey and so-on).

Types of golf clubs

Driver: A long-range club featuring a large, hollow head, generally used to strike the ball the farthest. Designed for use off a tee, but is occasionally used in the fairway.

Wood: A long-range club similar to a driver, but featuring a shorter shaft and a smaller head. Designed to be used either off the tee or from the fairway.

Hybrid: A medium-to-long-range club that combines the features of a wood and an iron. Designed with maximum versatility in mind.

Iron: A medium range club with a flat, angled face. Designed to be used from the fairway or from the rough.

Wedge: A short-range club with a flat, heavily-lofted face. Designed for use around the green, out of bunkers, from the rough or from the fairway.

Putter: A flat-faced club with minimal loft, used to roll the ball along the ground and into the hole. Designed for use on the green.

Parts of a golf course

Tee box: The area from which a player hits his/her first shot to start a hole. The only area on a course where the use of tees is permitted.

Fairway: The intended landing area for shots between the tee box and the green. The grass is mowed short to make subsequent shots easier.

Green: The putting surface surrounding the hole, featuring the shortest grass on the course.

Hole: The finishing point in which the player attempts to insert the ball in the fewest strokes, measuring 4.25 inches in diameter.

Rough: Any area of tall, thick grass surrounding the fairway and/or green, designed to penalize players who miss the intended landing area.

Bunker: A pit filled with sand that exists as an obstacle for the players (also known as a sand trap).

Hazard: An area on the course to be avoided, such as a body of water or a bunker. Hitting into a hazard either incurs an automatic penalty or leads to a difficult shot.

Other golf terms

Ace: A hole in one.

Approach: A shot hit toward the hole or the green.

Backswing: The motion where a golfer torques his/her body and club away from the ball to generate momentum to swing through the ball.

Break: The curve on a putt caused by the slope or grain on a green that affects the trajectory of the ball. Wind can also impact the break on a putt.

Caddie: The person that carries a player's clubs and provides the player advice on the course.

Divot: A small hole left in the ground after a player's club strikes it while making contact with the ball.

Draw: A shot intentionally hit with sidespin so that the flight of the ball curves from outside to inside (right to left for right-handed players).

Fade: A shot intentionally hit with sidespin so that the flight of the ball curves from inside to outside (left to right for right-handed players).

Hook: A shot that curves across a player's body unintentionally.

Major championships: The most prestigious annual tournaments in men's or women's golf. There are four majors for men and five majors for women.

Pace: The speed at which a player or group is moving through the course.

Slice: A shot that curves away from a player's body unintentionally.

Stance: The position of a player's feet before striking the ball.

Stroke play: A form of competition based on score amassed from the number of strokes played in a given round or multiple rounds. The Olympics are played in a stroke play format.