Armbar: A ground grappling (newaza) technique in which one judoka applies pressure to an opponent's elbow joint in order to get the opponent to tap out (give up). If the opponent does not tap out, they risk suffering a dislocated elbow. This move is capable of ending a match by ippon. Also known as an armlock.

Ashi-waza: Foot techniques.

Body drop: With an uchi-mata-like entry, the thrower sidesteps in front of the opponent's legs, keeping both legs on the ground and tripping the opponent over an extended leg. Also known as "tai otoshi."

Choke hold: A ground grappling (newaza) technique in which one judoka chokes or strangles the opponent by encircling the neck with an arm, the legs or the lapels. The object is to get the opponent to "tap" (give up) or "nap" (pass out). This move is capable of ending a match by ippon. Also known as a strangle hold.

Dan: A grade of black belt.

Deashi-barai: Foot-sweep technique.

Gatame-waza: Pinning techniques.

Hajime: The referee's command to begin the match.

Hansoku-make: A serious violation of the rules. A judoka that receives this penalty is immediately disqualified, and their opponent automatically wins the match. A competitor can also receive a hansoku-make if they are given four shidos (minor penalties).

Hantei: A call for judgment when the match ends with a tied score.

Harai goshi: This technique is an exact replica of uchi-mata, but the throwing leg goes in front of both opponent's legs instead of in between the legs.

Hiki-wake: Draw.

Ippon: A score that ends the match and awards an automatic victory. An athlete can score an ippon in multiple ways: executing a "perfect" throw that puts the opponent on their back with speed and force; pinning the opponent for 20 seconds; forcing their opponent to submit, or incapacitating the opponent, via armlock or choke hold.

Ippon-seoi-nage: From a one-handed sleeve or lapel grip, the thrower traps the opponent's arm/shoulder by bringing his or her arm under the opponent's armpit. At the same time, the thrower turns his or her back to the opponent making contact, then lifts the opponent on his or her back, bending and turning to throw.

Judogi: The judo uniform, which consists of a thick cotton jacket and loose-fitting pants. The jacket is tied together with a belt. In national and international competition, players are required to wear a white or blue judogi. Also known as a gi.

Judoka: A judo competitor.

Juji-gatame: Cross-armlock.

Kami-shiho-gatame: An upper body pin. The pinner lays parallel to the opponent, holding the opponent with chest-to-chest contact with the head facing the opponent's feet.

Kansetsu-waza: Armlock technique.

Kata-garuma: This technique is equivalent to the "fireman's carry" used in Olympic wrestling, where a judoka is brought across the opponent's shoulders in a takedown.

Katsu: Resuscitation allowed by a doctor or a trainer if a judoka passes out as the result of an ippon.

Kesa-gatame: Similar to a headlock, the pinner holds the opponent's head with one arm while securing the opponent's arm in his or her armpit.

Kiken-gachi: A win by withdrawal during a match.

Ko-soto-gake: The thrower grabs over the opponent's shoulder, then steps behind with the leg and brings the other arm across the opponent's face, taking him or her to the rear.

Ko-uchi-gari: The thrower reaches one leg in between his or her opponent's legs and trips the opponent using the bottom-of-foot-to-ankle technique.

Maitta: "I give up." A judoka will say this to surrender to his opponent as a result of an armbar or choke hold.

Masutemi-waza: Sacrifice techniques.

Matte: The referee's command to stop a match.

Nage-waza: Throwing techniques.

Newaza: Ground grappling techniques.

O-soto-gari: Facing the opponent, the thrower steps slightly forward and to the side, gaining chest-to-chest contact and extending his or her attack leg beyond the opponent. To execute the finish, the thrower acts like a pendulum, lowering the head and raising the leg, which connects with the back of his or her opponent's leg.

O-uchi-gari: The thrower brings one leg between his or her opponent's legs, hooking it behind (calf-to-calf), and simultaneously pushes the opponent backwards.

Obi: The belt worn by judokas.

Osaekomi: The referee's command to start timing a hold.

Osaekomi-toketa: The referee's command to start timing a hold.

Randori: Freestyle practice.

Reap: A leg sweep.

Seoi-nage: Shoulder throw.

Shido: A minor violation of the rules. If a competitor receives four shidos, those penalties become a hansoku-make (serious violation), and that judoka is disqualified.

Shime-waza: Choking technique.

Sode: This is typically done when both players are "cross gripping." The thrower grabs the opponent's sleeve, pushing it across his face while turning his back to the opponent, with contact and somersaulting to finish the technique.

Sono-mama: Do not move.

Soremade: The refreee's command to end a match.

Sutemi-waza: Counter techniques.

Tai otoshi: With an uchi-mata-like entry, the thrower sidesteps in front of the opponent's legs, keeping both legs on the ground and tripping the opponent over an extended leg. Also known as a body drop.

Tani-otashi: By faking uchi-mata and getting the opponent to defend the forward attack, the thrower then extends his or her leg behind both of the opponent's legs, taking him or her to the rear.

Tapout: The act of giving up, or submitting, to the opponent. The surrendering judoka taps their arm, mat, self, or opponent repeatedly to ask him to release the technique. The surrendering judoka can also say "maitta" (I give up). Tapping out ends the match.

Tatami: The mat used in judo matches.

Tegaruma: This is a common counter to uchi-mata. As the opponent enters, the thrower grabs the attacking leg and lifts it past the hips while pushing the opponent's upper body down with the other hand.

Toketa: Hold broken.

Uchi-mata: The thrower pulls the opponent, making chest-to-chest contract while rotating the upper body and simultaneously swinging the leg between the opponent's legs.

Waza-ari: A throw that is good, but does not meet all of the criteria for an ippon (perfect throw). Can also be awarded for immobilizing an opponent for 15-19 seconds. Two waza-aris are the equivalent of an ippon and end the match.

Waza-ari-awasete-ippon: A victory by scoring two waza-aris.

Yoko-shiho-gatame: A side body pin, the pinner lays perpendicular to the opponent, holding underneath the head with one arm and between the legs with the other.

Yoko tomoe nage: Face-to-face, the thrower drops to his or her own back and raises a foot, placing the foot on the opponent's stomach and kicking the opponent over and onto his or her back.

Yoshi: The referee's command to resume the match.

Yuko: A throw that is "partially lacking" in two of the three elements of an ippon. Can also be awarded for immobilizing an opponent for 10-14 seconds. A yuko is one level below a waza-ari.

Yusei-gachi: Being awarded any victory by less than ippon.