Armbar: A ground grappling (newaza) technique in which one judoka applies pressure to an opponent's elbow joint in order to get the opponent to tap out (give up). If the opponent does not tap out, they risk suffering a dislocated elbow. This move is capable of ending a match by ippon. Also known as an armlock.

Ashi-waza: Foot techniques

Body drop: With an uchi-mata-like entry, the thrower sidesteps in front of the opponent's legs, keeping both legs on the ground and tripping the opponent over an extended leg. Also known as "tai otoshi."

Chokehold: A ground grappling (newaza) technique in which one judoka chokes or strangles the opponent by encircling the neck with an arm, the legs or the lapels. The object is to get the opponent to "tap" (give up) or "nap" (pass out). This move is capable of ending a match by ippon. Also known as a stranglehold.

Dan: A grade of black belt

Deashi-barai: Foot-sweep technique

Gatame-waza: Pinning techniques

Golden score: The equivalent of sudden-death overtime in judo. If there is no winner at the end of regulation time, then the match is decided by "golden score." The clocks are reset, and the first person to score an ippon or waza-ari is the winner. There is no time limit.

Hajime: The referee's command to begin the match

Hansoku-make: A serious violation of the rules. A judoka that receives this penalty is immediately disqualified, and their opponent automatically wins the match. A competitor can also receive a hansoku-make if they are given three shidos (minor penalties).

Harai goshi: This technique is an exact replica of uchi-mata, but the throwing leg goes in front of both opponent's legs instead of in between the legs

Hiki-wake: Draw

Ippon: A score that ends the match and awards an automatic victory. An athlete can score an ippon in multiple ways: executing a "perfect" throw that puts the opponent on their back with speed and force; pinning the opponent for 20 seconds; forcing their opponent to submit, or incapacitating the opponent via armlock or chokehold.

Ippon-seoi-nage: From a one-handed sleeve or lapel grip, the thrower traps the opponent's arm/shoulder by bringing his/her arm under the opponent's armpit. At the same time, the thrower turns his/her back to the opponent making contact, then lifts the opponent on his/her back, bending and turning to throw.

Judogi: The judo uniform, which consists of a thick cotton jacket and loose-fitting pants. The jacket is tied together with a belt. In national and international competition, players are required to wear a white or blue judogi. Also known as a gi.

Judoka: A judo competitor

Juji-gatame: Cross-armlock

Kami-shiho-gatame: An upper body pin. The pinner lays parallel to the opponent, holding the opponent with chest-to-chest contact with the head facing the opponent's feet.

Kansetsu-waza: Armlock technique

Kata-garuma: This technique is equivalent to the "fireman's carry" used in Olympic wrestling, where a judoka is brought across the opponent's shoulders in a takedown

Katsu: Resuscitation allowed by a doctor or a trainer if a judoka passes out as the result of an ippon

Kesa-gatame: Similar to a headlock, the pinner holds the opponent's head with one arm while securing the opponent's arm in his or her armpit

Kiken-gachi: A win by withdrawal during a match

Ko-soto-gake: The thrower grabs over the opponent's shoulder, then steps behind with the leg and brings the other arm across the opponent's face, taking him or her to the rear

Ko-uchi-gari: The thrower reaches one leg in between his or her opponent's legs and trips the opponent using the bottom-of-foot-to-ankle technique

Maitta: "I give up." A judoka will say this to surrender to his opponent as a result of an armbar or chokehold.

Masutemi-waza: Sacrifice techniques

Matte: The referee's command to stop a match

Nage-waza: Throwing techniques

Newaza: Ground grappling techniques

O-soto-gari: Facing the opponent, the thrower steps slightly forward and to the side, gaining chest-to-chest contact and extending his or her attack leg beyond the opponent. To execute the finish, the thrower acts like a pendulum, lowering the head and raising the leg, which connects with the back of his or her opponent's leg.

O-uchi-gari: The thrower brings one leg between his or her opponent's legs, hooking it behind (calf-to-calf), and simultaneously pushes the opponent backward

Obi: The belt worn by judokas

Osaekomi: The referee's command to start timing a hold

Osaekomi-toketa: The referee's command to start timing a hold

Randori: Freestyle practice

Reap: A leg sweep

Seoi-nage: Shoulder throw

Shido: A minor violation of the rules. If a competitor receives three shidos, those penalties become a hansoku-make (serious violation), and that judoka is disqualified.

Shime-waza: Choking technique

Sode: This is typically done when both players are "cross gripping." The thrower grabs the opponent's sleeve, pushing it across his/her face while turning his back to the opponent, with contact and somersaulting to finish the technique.

Sono-mama: Do not move

Soremade: The refreee's command to end a match

Sutemi-waza: Counter techniques

Tai otoshi: With an uchi-mata-like entry, the thrower sidesteps in front of the opponent's legs, keeping both legs on the ground and tripping the opponent over an extended leg. Also known as a body drop.

Tani-otashi: By faking uchi-mata and getting the opponent to defend the forward attack, the thrower then extends his or her leg behind both of the opponent's legs, taking him or her to the rear

Tapout: The act of giving up, or submitting, to the opponent. The surrendering judoka taps their arm, mat, self, or opponent repeatedly to ask him to release the technique. The surrendering judoka can also say "maitta" (I give up). Tapping out ends the match.

Tatami: The mat used in judo matches

Tegaruma: This is a common counter to uchi-mata. As the opponent enters, the thrower grabs the attacking leg and lifts it past the hips while pushing the opponent's upper body down with the other hand.

Toketa: Hold broken

Uchi-mata: The thrower pulls the opponent, making chest-to-chest contact while rotating the upper body and simultaneously swinging the leg between the opponent's legs

Waza-ari: A throw that misses one of the three criteria for ippon (either strength, speed or control). Can also be awarded for immobilizing an opponent for 10-19 seconds. Two waza-aris are the equivalent of an ippon and end the match.

Waza-ari-awasete-ippon: A victory by scoring two waza-aris

Yoko-shiho-gatame: A side body pin, the pinner lays perpendicular to the opponent, holding underneath the head with one arm and between the legs with the other

Yoko tomoe nage: Face-to-face, the thrower drops to his or her own back and raises a foot, placing the foot on the opponent's stomach and kicking the opponent over and onto his or her back

Yoshi: The referee's command to resume the match

Yusei-gachi: Being awarded any victory by less than ippon