What types of rifles are used in Olympic shooting?

Rifle (3-position and prone): A small-bore rifle no larger than 8 kg (17.637 lbs.) with a 5.6-millimeter caliber. A women's small-bore rifle can be no larger than 6.5 kg (14.33 lbs.).

Air rifle (10m rifle): The air rifle is no bigger than 5.5 kg (12.125 lbs.) and has a pellet that is shot in thanks to air being compressed from an external lever or a pre-compressed air cylinder. The opening is .449 centimeters (177 inches).

Pistol (50m pistol, Men's 25m rapid fire pistol, Women's 25m pistol): The men's 50m pistol competitors use a small-bore pistol with a .55-centimeter (.22-inch) caliber and with no restrictions on length, width or weight. The women's event and the men's rapid-fire competitors use a .22 long rifle caliber pistol capable of firing five shots. A maximum weight of 1.4 kg (3.0865 lbs) is specified with a minimum trigger pull weight of .99 kg (2.2046 lbs). The grip must not touch the wrist, and the pistol must be able to fit in a box-shaped 300 x 150 x 50 (all millimeters) with at least 1 millimeter in between the box sides and the gun.

Air pistol (10m pistol): With a maximum weight of 1.49 kg (3.3069 lbs), the air pistol has a .449-centimeter (.177-inch) caliber. The minimum trigger pull weight is .499 kg (1.1023 lbs) and the air pistol must be able to fit in a box-sized 420 x 200 x 50 (all millimeters).

Shotgun (trap): Double-barreled, the guns generally weigh around nine pounds and can have barrel lengths up to 81.28 centimeters (32 inches).

Shotgun (double trap): The guns are similar to those used in trap, but there is slightly more pellet spread compared to the tight pellet spread of shotguns used in trap.

Shotgun (skeet): The guns are regulated to shoot a more open pattern of pellets, and weigh around 2.9 kg (6.5 lbs) because of the shorter barrels that are used.

Why do Olympic shooters wear heavy jackets?

Olympic shooters wear special clothing, such as a shooting jacket, shooting trousers and shooting gloves. These are designed to eliminate most of the stress from firing a gun dozens of times and are tested for thickness and stiffness by International Shooting Sport Federation standards.

Olympic shooters are also allowed to wear light athletic shoes if they meet the qualifications and standards, such as ensuring the maximum thickness of the sole at the toe is 10 millimeters, the height of the shoe shall not exceed two-thirds the length of the shoe wearer's foot plus 10 millimeters, the top of the shoe's thickness may not be more than four millimeters and the toe of the sole of the shoe may not extend beyond 10 millimeters from the end of the shoe. 

To help their eyes, Olympic shooters are urged to wear protection. The non-shooting eye may be covered by an item not wider than 30 millimeters. An actual side blinder, attached to a hat, headband or glasses, may not be any deeper than 40 millimeters. For ear protection, the device used is not allowed to be a receiver of any kind.

Other equipment used in Olympic shooting

Sights: In rifles, only metallic sights are allowed — nothing with a lens can be used. In pistols, only open sights may be used, meaning optical, mirror, telescope, laser beam or electronically-projected dot sights may not be used.

Shotgun cartridges: A pellet load may not exceed 24.5 grams and a pellet may not exceed 2.6 millimeters in diameter.