General terms

Dobok: The white, V-neck uniform worn during taekwondo matches. The style is based on traditional peasant garb.

Dojang: A training gym or school where a student develops his body and mind.

Hogu: A padded chest protector. In international competition, the hogus must be marked red (chung) or blue (hong).

Gyoroogi: Sparring or competing against an opponent. This is the type of competition that is practiced during the Olympics.

Jeon: One round of competition.

Jeum: A point scored during competition.

Joo Sim: A referee.

Kyeong-rye: Bow. Contestants bow to each other and to the officials before and after the match.

Poomsae: A pattern of techniques used against an imaginary opponent. In some competitions, an athlete's poomsae is scored and specific moves are required, similar to the compulsory round in figure skating.

Types of attacks

Ahp cha-gi: A front kick, performed by thrusting the foot to the target in a linear motion.

Cha-gi: Kick.

Dolryo cha-gi: A frequently used roundhouse kick.

Dui-hooryo cha-gi: A spin whip kick, performed by pivoting on one leg, spinning the body around and release the kicking leg in a circular motion. The sole of the foot is used to strike the opponent's face.

Dwi cha-gi: A back kick, used mainly for counter-attacking.

Guligi cha-gi: A hook kick.

Naeryo cha-gi: An axe kick, performed both with a bent knee and a straight leg. When executed with a bent knee, the knee is unfolded in a downward direction, beginning at the highest point of the kicking path. The straight leg kick is performed by lifting the leg straight up at a slightly off-center angle and dropping it on the target.

Twi-o cha-gi: A jump kick.

Yop cha-gi: A side kick.

Chi-gi: A punch.

Dung-joomock chi-gi: A back fist punch.

Guligi chi-gi: A hook punch.

Me-joomok chi-gi: A hammer fist punch.

Pyon-joomock chi-gi: A knuckle fist punch.

Sob-nal chi-gi: A knife hand punch.

Referee signals

Cha-ryeot: Attention. The referee shouts this prior to the start of a match to both competitors.

Counting: If a knockdown occurs, the referee will count from 1 ("ha-nah") to 10 ("yeol") in Korean to give the downed athlete time to recover. Even if the downed contestant stands up and wants to resume, he or she must wait while the referee continues counting to 8 ("yeo-dul").

Kalyeo: The referee's order to break.

Keuman: Stop. The match ends when the referee declares this.

Shijak: Start. The competition does not begin until the referee says this.

Parts of the body

Baal: Foot.

Dari: Leg.

Eolgul: Face.

Joomock: Fist.

Mok: Neck.

Mo-li: Head.

Moo-rup: Knee

Momtong: The middle part of the body, or trunk.

Palmmock: Forearm.

Son: Hand.

Sonmock: Wrist.