General terms

Dobok: The white, V-neck uniform worn during taekwondo matches. The style is based on traditional peasant garb.

Dojang: Training gym or school where a student develops his body and mind

Gam-jeom: Penalty. When issued to a competitor, their opponent receives one point.

Headgear: Worn by each athlete to protect their head. Can be blue or red, depending on which color is assigned to the athlete. Includes electronic sensors as part of the Protector and Scoring Sytem used in taekwondo.

Hogu: Padded chest protector. In international competition, the hogus must be marked red (chung) or blue (hong).

Jeon: One round of competition

Joo sim: Referee

Kyorugi: Sparring or competing against an opponent. This is the type of competition that is practiced during the Olympics.

Poomsae: Pattern of techniques used against an imaginary opponent. In some competitions, an athlete's poomsae is scored and specific moves are required, similar to the compulsory round in figure skating.

PSS: Protector and Scoring System. Each athlete's trunk protector and headgear are equipped with electronic sensors that help to automatically measure the impact of any strikes delivered and automatically record valid points for those strikes.

Trunk protector: Worn by each athlete to protect their torso. Can be blue or red, depending on which color is assigned to the athlete. Includes electronic sensors as part of the Protector and Scoring Sytem used in taekwondo. Also known as a "hogu."

Types of attacks

Ahp cha-gi: Front kick, performed by thrusting the foot to the target in a linear motion

Cha-gi: Kick

Chi-gi: Punch

Dolryo cha-gi: Frequently used roundhouse kick

Dui-hooryo cha-gi: Spin whip kick, performed by pivoting on one leg, spinning the body around and release the kicking leg in a circular motion. The sole of the foot is used to strike the opponent's face.

Dung-joomock chi-gi: Back fist punch

Dwi cha-gi: Back kick, used mainly for counter-attacking

Guligi cha-gi: Hook kick

Guligi chi-gi: Hook punch

Me-joomok chi-gi: Hammer fist punch

Naeryo cha-gi: Axe kick, performed both with a bent knee and a straight leg. When executed with a bent knee, the knee is unfolded in a downward direction, beginning at the highest point of the kicking path. The straight leg kick is performed by lifting the leg straight up at a slightly off-center angle and dropping it on the target.

Pyon-joomock chi-gi: Knuckle fist punch

Sob-nal chi-gi: Knife hand punch

Twi-o cha-gi: Jump kick

Yop cha-gi: Side kick

Referee signals

Cha-ryeot: Attention. The referee shouts this prior to the start of a match to both competitors.

Counting: If a knockdown occurs, the referee will count from 1 ("ha-nah") to 10 ("yeol") in Korean to give the downed athlete time to recover. Even if the downed contestant stands up and wants to resume, he or she must wait while the referee continues counting to 8 ("yeo-dul").

Kal-yeo: The referee's order to break. After the referee calls for a "kal-yeo," competitors are not allowed to attack each other. 

Keuman: Stop. The match ends when the referee declares this.

Kye-sok: The referee's command to resume a match

Kyeong-rye: Bow. Contestants bow to each other and to the officials before and after the match.

Shi-jak: The referee's command to start the match

Yeol: When an athlete is knocked down, the referee calls for a break and begins counting 10 ("yeol") in Korean. If the knocked down athlete is unable to recover, then their opponent wins by knockout.

Parts of the body

Baal: Foot

Dari: Leg

Eolgul: Face

Joomock: Fist

Mok: Neck

Mo-li: Head

Moo-rup: Knee

Momtong: The middle part of the body, or trunk

Palmmock: Forearm

Son: Hand

Sonmock: Wrist